TDE (Transparent Data Encryption) encrypts the data files at rest but don’t forget that it also encrypts your backup file too. I fancied looking inside the MDF and a backup of my database before enabling TDE and comparing it to when enabled.
If you like learning about internals use the undocumented function to get the FileID:PageID of your table rows and use that in DBCC PAGE.
SELECT sys.fn_PhysLocFormatter (%%physloc%%) AS RID, * FROM Person.EmailAddress;
Now set your trace flag on and read the contents of DBCC PAGE to satisfy your curiosity.